Notes on Raginis

by  Kannoomal

Published in Rupam, No. 11, July 1922, pp.91-99

While looking for a book in a State library, I came across an old Sanskrit manuscript on music, entitled the ‘Sangit-mala’. On examining it, I found that neither the name of the author nor the time of composition was given; the copy was, however, dated the Kuar, Samvat year 1835 which roughly corresponds to September 1778. This was simply the date of the copy taken of the original, not the date of the composition of the work, which must be very old. By the kind permission of the librarian concerned, I was able to have a copy of the manuscript taken. In view of the importance of subject, I translated the work into English and wrote notes on the texts, illustrating their hidden meaning. I have taken the liberty of calling these notes, rhetorical interpretation of the texts. The translation has been lying with me for sometime, and now I avail myself of the opportunity of making it public for the benefit of the lovers of Hindu music.

I have all along been of opinion that there is an intimate connection between Hindu erotics and Hindu music; and that the personifications of the Ragas and Raginis given by the ancient writers on music form the most interesting connecting link between the two.

I have made an attempt in my notes to reduce the personified Ragas and Raginis to the characters of the Nayaks and Nayaikas - heroes and heroines-of the Sahitya Shastra, and thus to find out the predominating sentiments ruling them, which would give a clue to the subject matter of the songs to be sung in each of them. As I have already given elaborate descriptions of Nayaks and Nayaikas in my article on Hindu erotics in the October number of “Rupam”, I do not deem it necessary to dwell again upon the subject. I, therefore, refer the reader to that article for all the information in this connection. An appendix given at the end of this number (p.114) will show the broad conclusions arrived at, in the manuscript and my notes thereon. Appropriate illustrations have also been given to make the subject interesting and highly enjoyable.

The translation of the Sankrit texts of the Sangit-mala together with my notes is given below :-

SANGIT-MALA

1. After paying my reverence to the lotus-feet of the Mahadev and salutations to the feet of the daughter of the Himalayas (Parvati) and repeatedly meditating on the name of Ganesh who is remover of all difficulties, I commence this discourse on the forms and characteristics of the six Ragas such as the Bhairav, and others, and their appropriate times of singing for the delectation of the hearts of the learned and those versed in the science of music.

2 and 3. The six Ragas are (1) Bhairav, (2) Malkosh, (3) Hindol, (4) Dipaka (5) Sriraga and (6) Meghmalar. Each of these Ragas have give Raginis.

4. Bhairavi, Bairati, Madhumadhavi, Saindhavi and Bengali are the five Raginis of the Bhairav Raga.

5. The five Raginis of the Malkosh Raga are Todi, Gaudi, Gunkalika, Khambhati and Kakumbhika.

6. The five Raginis belonging to the Hindol Raga are Ramkali, Desakhi, Lalita, Vilawala and Patmanjir.

7. The Dipaka Raga has Desi, Kumodani, Nata, Kedara and Kanhara for its five Raginis.

8. The five Raginis of the Sriraga are Malsri, Maru, Dhanasri, Vasant and Asavari.

9. Tanka, Malar, Gurjarika, Bhupali and Vibhasa are the five Raginis of the Meghmalar Raga.

RAGAS AND RAGINIS.

I. BHAIRAV RAGA

10 and 11. The Bhairav Raga represents an image of the Mahadev from whose throat he has sprung with the characteristics of having three eyes, the Ganges in the tuft of his hair, the moon in his crown, a serpent in his hand and a garland of skulls round his neck. He is dressed in white and informed with musical notes ranging up to Dhaivat. This Raga which is calculated to drive away fever is sung in Autumn at the commencement of the day.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The hero (Nayak) is Dhirodatta - one who is high-souled, forgiving, unegoistic, sober, modest, even-tempered and firm-resolved. His consort (Nayaika) is Swaya - one who is modest, polite and devoted to her lord, and always busy in household duties. The central feeling in the Raga is the harmonious and peaceful sentiment and indicative of spiritual matters.

BHAIRAVI RAGINI 1.

12 and 13. She is represented to be a fair-complexioned and large-eyed female dressed in a white sari and red corset and a garland of champa flowers thrown round her neck. She is shown seated on a crystal-made stool worshipping the crowned head of the Mahadeva and singing with time well kept. This Ragini is sung in the Sarad (Autumn) season in the morning and her central note is Madhyama.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a blooming young woman full of love, well-versed in the arts of pleasures, moderate in speech and modesty but one whose husband is gone to a distant country on business i.e., Prosit Bhartaka. The Nayak (hero) is Anukul - one who is devoted to only one woman. The prevailing sentiment is a feeling of peace and harmony i.e., shant ras.

BAIRATI RAGINI 2.

14 and 15. This Ragini is represented to be a white-complexioned and uncomparably beautiful women with her hair hanging down. She is shown to be in the company of her loving consort who is very favourably disposed towards her and whose contact is so eagerly coveted by her. The central note of this Ragini is Kharaj, though all other notes enter into her composition. This Ragini is sung in the last proportion of the day in Autumn.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a free and public woman full of blooming youth and sensual passions and skilful in the arts of pleasures and fond of going out without modesty. She keeps her lover under her thumb by her arts and indulges in various artificial affectations. Her lover is favourably disposed toward her. The prevailing sentiment in the Ragini is Sambhog Sringar i.e., the erotic sentiment inducing the mutual enjoyment of a loving couple by mutually seeing, touching, etc.

MADHUMADHAVI RAGINI 3.

16 AND 17. She is described as a slender waisted, delicate and golden-complexioned young woman whose lips and eyes triumph over those of the Khanjan [1] bird and whose sweet voice outdoes the warble of the cuckoo (koel). She is dressed in yellow garments and her hand is cast round the neck of her lover like a creeper and she is smiling and kissing her lover. The central note of this Ragini is Madhyamaswar and is sung in Autmn in the first part of the day.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a modest, polite and faithful woman busy in household duties. She is full of the bloom of youth and passion and skilful in the arts of pleasures. Her lover is a Dhirodatta already described. The prevailing sentiment is Sambhog Sringar (already described).

SAINDHAVI RAGINI 4.

18 and 19. Sheisavery beautiful woman dressed in red garments with eyes aflame with rage and holding a trident in the hand and mana [2] flowers in the ears. She is very eager for the return of her lover and is worshipping Mahadeva in a sitting posture. The dominant note of the Ragini is Kharaj and is sung in Autumn in the last part of the day.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The nayaika (heroine) is a young blooming woman faithful to her husband whom she scolds and thrashes on discovering on his person marks of his having misbehaved with another woman. Her lover is a Dhrista Nayak who is unashamed of his wrong act which he never acknowledged even when it is discovered. He is fearless and unsubdued, even when scolded and thrashed. The prevailing sentiment in the Ragini is Vipralambha Sringar which is an intense erotic sentiment remaining unsatisfied owing to the inaccessibility of the lover.

BENGALI RAGINI 5.

20 and 21. She is shown dressed in fine garments dyed in the solution of saffron-leaves. She has a painting of musk on the forehead, wears a Baini (had ornament) on her well plaited hair and holds ashes in one hand and a fine trident in the other. The dominant note in this Ragini is Kharaj and is sung in Autumn in the fourth part of the day.

22. Bengali is the fifth Ragini of the Bhairava Raga which has been described with his Raginis.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a young beautiful woman whose husband is in a distant country, in search of whom she goes out of her own choice. Her lover or husband is a Dhirodhata who is rash, fickle, designing egoistic, arrogant and prone to self-praise. The prevailing feeling is an erotic sentiment remaining unsatisfied owing to the inaccessibility of the lover.

II. RAG MALKOSH.

23 and 24. He is a young man with camphor-like white person dressed in blue garments and having a fine necklace of pearls on his neck and holding a stick decked with flowers in the hand. He is much interested in sporting with a number of young women. The central note in this Raga is Kharaj and he is sung in Sisar season (latter cold season) in the fourth part of the night by all versed in musical science. The birth-place of this Raga is the throat of the Mahadeva.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayak (hero) is Dakshan - one who has equal love for many women. His Nayaikas (wives) are modest, polite and devoted to him and always disposed to do household duties. The prevailing sentiment is love manifested by perceptions such as seeing, touching, etc.

TODI RAGINI 1.

25 and 26. This Ragini is represented to be a delicate young maid dressed in a white sari and blue corset and possessed of remarkable cleverness and nectar-like sweetness of speech. She is shown as delighting in offering her reverence to Sri Krishna. The predominant note of this Ragini is Kharaj and is sung in severe cold season at noon.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a young unmarried girl full of passion. Her lover is Dhirprasant-one full of ordinary qualities assigned to a Nayak and of a high birth. The prevailing sentiment is love panting for the presence of the lover.

GAURI RAGINI 2.

27 and 28. She is possessed of beauty that charms the eye and captivated the heart, and in the creation of whom the Creator seems to have used his best art. She is dressed in a white sari and her body shines like a blue lotus. Her face outvies the moon, her voice surpasses the sweet warble of a cuckoo (koel) and her ear adorned with a newly born mango-leaf looks beautiful.

Her central note is Kharaj and the time of singing is the fourth part of the day in severe cold weather.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a young passionate female whose husband has gone out to a distant country on business. Her consort is a tender-hearted young man undisturbed by anxiety and perpetually fond of dancing, singing, etc. The prevailing sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar - love remaining unsatisfied owing to the absence of the lover.

GUNKALIKA RAGINI 3.

29 and 30. This Ragini is described to be a woman in dejected spirits. She is dressed in dirty clothes and her eyes are incessantly shedding tears which wash her breasts. She is sitting under a Kadamba [3] tree with loose and scattered hair, heaving deep sighs and her body and heart are both afflicted by the anguishes of separation from her lover. The dominant note of this Ragini is Nishada and is sung in morning in Sisar or severely cold season.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a girl of growing youth and passion, fearful of worldly enjoyments and easily reconcilable in a love quarrel; she is afflicted with pain owing to separation from her lover who is desirous of returning to her but business prevents him from doing so.

Her lover is Dhirodhat. The prevailing sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar, i.e., love remaining unsatisfied owing to the inaccessibility of the lover.

KHAMBHAVATI RAGINI 4.

31 and 32. She is described to be ne plus ultra of beauty and good qualities - an abode of joy, a storehouse of arts, a field of pleasures and a stage for the sports of Cupid. She is dressed in a fine garment of saffron colour, with a corset of green cloth over her breasts and a necklace of pearls hanging on the breasts and ornaments set with brilliant gems shining on the head. She has a nectar-like sweet voice and she is shown busy in dancing, singing and playing on music.

Her dominant note is Dhaivat and is sung in the third part of the night. Such is the description of Khambhavati given by those who are well versed in singing and music.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a young passionate public woman skilful in all the arts of entertainment who is making preparations for the reception of her lover. Her lover is Dhirlalita i.e., one who is tender-hearted and has no anxiety and is constantly found at dancing, singing and doing similar things. The prevailing sentiment is love burning for the arrival of the lover.

KAKUMBHIKA RAGINI 5.

33 and 34. She is represented to be a female of extremely delicate and fragile limbs which appear exhausted by a recent indulgence. Her hair is loose, her corset off, her garland broken and she appears languid and exhausted by efforts in indulgence. The corners of her eyes being constantly closed betrays her nocturnal vigil. As far as singing and the art of gestulation go, she occupies the first position.

She is formed of the Dhaivatswar and is sung in the fourth part of of the night in the Sisar or severly cold season.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is an extremely young public woman skilful in all the arts of pleasure. Her lover is a tender-hearted young man free from anxieties and constantly employed in singing, dancing and similar arts.

The prevailing sentiment is Sambhog Sringar i.e., theeroticsentimentcalled into by perceptions such as seeing, touching, etc.

III. HINDOL RAG.

35 and 36. This Rag whose body shines as it were, with the lustre of gold and who is born of the body of the lotus-born Brahma and is much given to sensual pleasures, is represented to be dressed in red garments and seated in a beautiful swing (Hindola) made of glittering gold covered with a variety of flowers and lotuses and surrounded by women singing songs that delight the ear.

This Rag is sung in Spring in the first part of the day.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayak (hero) is Sath - one outwardly loving many women without being true to any. His women are young, sensual and unchaste. The prevailing sentiment is the erotic sentiment that has been brought into play by seeing or hearing about each other but where the lover and the beloved have not met each other.

RAMKALI RAGNI 1.

37 and 38. This Ragini excels all in the lustre of her body which appears as it were, made of gold. She is dressed in purple garments, is well bedecked with ornamnents, has a sectarial mark painted with musk on the forehead and is full of smiles, amorous gestures and lascivious airs. She is shown sitting eager to see her lover. This Ragini is sung in Kharaj swar in the fourth part of the night in Spring, but can also be sung with delight throughout the day.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a young woman who moves about on a dark night in search of her lover. Her lover is Dhirodhatta that has been described in the preceding pages. The prevailing sentiment in this Ragini is Vipralambha Sringar which has also been noticed before.

DESAKHI RAGINI 2.

39 and 40. This Ragini is a beautiful tall women full of marital feelings and wearing an angry appearance. She despised all rivals in her pride and takes away her loving husband to a lonely place and sits there with him.

The predominating note in this Ragini is Gandhar and is sung in the first part of the day in Spring.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a young passionate but bashful woman who moves about in search of her lover. The Nayak (hero) is Dhirodhata and the prevailing sentiment is Sambhog Sringar which has already been addressed.

LALITA RAGINI 3.

41. She is dressed in red garments and bedecked with exceedingly fine and precious jewellery. Her face is white, her throat (lips) red with betel leaves and she wears a garland on the neck and spreads around her, as it were, the showers of the nectar of her youth. The dominant note is Dhaivat and is sung in the first part of the day in Spring. Thus have described her those who are well versed in singing and music.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The nayaika (heroine) is a fully developed young woman who moves about in search of her lover. Her lover is Anukul - one who is favourably disposed towards her. The prevailing sentiment is Sambhog Sringar which has already been described.

VILAVALA RAGINI 4.

42 and 43. Her body appears as it were, made of clouds instinct with water. She wears a red sari on her body which resembles a creeper and is well bedecked with all kinds of beautiful ornaments. She is shown sitting at the door of the courtyard of her house with attention fully directed towards the return of her lover.

This Ragini is sung in the Dhaivat note in the first part of the day in Spring.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a fully developed young woman who moves about in quest of her lover. The Nayak (lover) is Dhirodhata and the prevailing sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

PATMANJARI RAGINI 5.

44 and 45. This Ragini is described to be an extremely emaciated female withering away in separation from her lover to such a degree that her life is despaired of. She has on her neck a garland of withered flowers and she has abstained from food, drink, sleep and speech and is smarting under the pangs of separation. The dominant note of this Ragini is Pancham and is sung in the second part of the night in Spring.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a modest and polite woman devoted to her husband who has gone to a distant country on business. The Nayak (hero) is Dhirodatta and the prevailing sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar - the erotic sentiment which at its height remains unsatisfied owing to the unavailability of the lover.

IV. DIPAKA RAG

46. This Rag has sprung from the eye of the sun and is seated on a mad elephant, radiating in the effulgence of his body, which puts pomegranate flowers to shame. He is exceedingly handsome and wears a necklace of matchless pearls and is surrounded by women. The Rag is sung in the Kharaj note in Summer at noon.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayak (hero) is a craftly fellow showing love to many women without being true to anyone while his women are faithful, young, passionate and skilful in all the arts of pleasure. The prevailing sentiment is Sambhog Sringar.

DESI RAGINI 1.

47. This favourite Ragini of Dipaka Rag is of an extremely beautiful appearance wearing green garments and fine ornaments. She is lasciviously disposed and is seated on a couch by the side of her sleeping lover in a restless mood.

The dominant note of this Ragini is Kharaj and is sung in Summer at noontime.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a fully developed young woman intent upon having her lover. Her lover is Dhirodhata. The prevailing sentiment is of mutual enjoyment with perceptional feelings.

KAMODINI RAGINI 2.

48 and 49. The Ragini is well dressed in a fine yellow-coloured sari and a white corset. Her underwear is a red cloth and she speaks sweet as a cuckoo (koel). She is looking about in all the ten directions for the arrival of her lover and sitting in the forest in a concentrated mood of mind.

This is sung in Dhaivatswar in Summer at noontime.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a fully developed young woman full of passion. Her lover is Dhirodhata. The prevailing sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

NATA RAGINI 3.

50 and 51. She is dressed in a red sari and decked out with all kinds of ornaments. She is clever, charming and radiant like gold. She is very careful of her secrets, and by her charms, captivates the heart of her lover. She takes delight in acrobatic antics, and in the course of indulging in such a gambol, her hand is resting on the neck of a horse.

The Kharaj swar is her dominant note and her time of singing is the fourth part of the day in Summer.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a young unmarried girl full of passion and so skilful in the arts of pleasures that her lover does not like to leave her even for a moment and is totally enamoured of her. Her Nayal is Anukul, one who is most favourably disposed towards her. The prevailing sentiment is SambhogSringar- thefeeling of love in the course of mutual enjoyment attended with such perceptions as seeing, touching, etc.

KEDAR RAGINI 4.

52. This Ragini is shown to be guised like a female ascetic. A snake is cast athwart her body for a holy thread, the infant moon is worn on her head and the Ganges rests in the coil of her hair. This Ragini is sung in Nesadhswar in Summer at noontime.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a faithful woman whose husband has gone to a distant country on business. The Nayak is Dhirprasant - one endowed with the qualities of a Nayak and belongs to a high caste. The prevailing sentiment is Vipralambha Purvraga - the sentiment of love which has sprung up on seeing or hearing about a lover but remains unsatisfied owing to the latter’s absence.

KANHARA RAGINI 5.

53 and 54. This Ragini has a white sandal mark on the forehead, a shining sword in the right hand and a fine elephant’s tusk in the left. She wears a white sari on her body which radiates with the lustre of gold. Her attendants are the celestial musicians. This Ragini is sung in Nishadswar in Summer in the first part of the night

Thus is she described by those who are well versed in musical science.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a young passionate woman well skilled in the arts of pleasure but whose husband has gone to a distant country on business. Her lover is Dhrista - one who is unashamed of his wrong act even when discovered in doing so and who defends his wrong position by false arguments, assuming at the same time a defiant attitude. The prevailing sentiment is Vipralambha - the intense erotic sentiment remaining unsatisfied owing to the absence of the lover.

V. SRIRAGA

55 and 56. This Raga is dressed in red garments and wears a necklace of diamonds. He is beautiful like the Cupid and his voice is sweet. He holds a lotus in his hand and looks well dressed in every way. The dominant note of this Rag is Kharaj and the time of singing is the fourth part of the day in Hemant or early cold season.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayak is Dhirprasant already described. The Nayaika is an unmarried young girl. The sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

MALSRI RAGINI

57 and 58. This Ragini has a very delicate body as bright as gold and is dressed in red garments and a gold tinted corset. She is in anguish owing to the separation from her lover. She is show standing under a mangoe tree with her hand laid on the arm of a female companion and smiling.

The dominant note is Kharaj and the season and time of singing this Ragini are Hemant or early cold season and noon time.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a young woman who feels herself slighted by her lover in as much as he has not come to her having appointed the time and place. Her lover is Dhirodhata. The sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

MARU RAGINI 2.

59, 60 and 61. Her god-like bright body is dressed in golden garments. She has a garland of many kinds of flowers on her neck.

Her neck and voice are beautiful. Her mind is agitated by the feeling born of intense love. She is of such a great beauty that all women covet her and desire to kiss her. She is shown seated in a chair at the appointed place.

This Ragini is sung in the Kharaj swar in early cold season in the fourth part of the day.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is an intensely young and passionate woman who has made preparations for the reception of the lover who is Dhirodatta. The sentiments is Vipralambha Sringar.

DHANASARI RAGINI 3.

62. She is emaciated and her red garments are wet with her tears as she is weeping. She is without her companions and is extremely afflicted by the pain of separation from her lover.

The time and season of singing this Ragini are noontime and Hemant or early cold season.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a growing young woman fearful of worldly pleasures and easily reconcilable in a love quarrel. She is afflicted by the non-arrival of her lover who was desirous of returning but something detained him. The Nayak is Dhirodhata and the sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

BASANT RAGINI 4.

63 and 64. She is of a lovely dark appearance as the sweet smell comes out of her lotus-like mouth and a swarm of black bees gather about her face and make a humming sound. She has the beauty and lustre of the person of Cupid and youth that captivates young men. Her breasts are hard and she holds buds of mangoe plants in her lotus-like hands.

This Ragini is sung in kharja swar in Spring in the second part of the day.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a young passionate woman who is well skilled in all the arts of pleasure and who moves about in search of her lover. Her lover is Dhirodhata. The sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

ASAVARI RAGINI 5. (Illus. Fig. 1.)

65 and 66. Her bewitching appearance is that of a cloud and she is dresses in fine white garment. She is sitting under a kadam tree intertwined with snakes in a cool watery place.

This Ragini is sung in Dhaivatswar in Hemant or early cold season in the first half part of the day by experts in music.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a bold public woman moving about in white clothes on a full moon night in search of her lover. Her lover is Dhirodhata and the sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar - the intense feeling of love not fulfilled by the meetin of the lover.

VI. MEGHMALAR RAGA.

67. This Raga has sprung from the sky. He is dressed in dark-coloured garments. He is white complexioned and wears a crown of coiled hair on the head. Being a soldier he holds a sword in the hand and is of such a handsome appearance that he subdues the hearts of all men. This Raga is sung by experts in music in beautiful tones in the fourth part of the night in rainy season.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayak (hero) is Dhirprasant i.e., one possessing all the qualities of a Nayak and is of high birth. The Nayaika is an unmarried girl not bound by conventional rules. The sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

TANKA RAGINI

68. In order to avoid the heat of the affliction of her heart, she is lying on a lotus-made couch burning with the pains of separation from her lover and heaving deep sighs. The dominant note of this Ragini is Kharaj and is sung at night in a rainy season.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a modest, polite and faithful woman in her teens, who is expert in all the arts of pleasure and owing to the separation from her lover, is afflicted at heart. Her lover is Anukul or one favourably disposed towards her. The sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

MALAR RAGINI 2. ( Illus. Fig. 2. )

69 and 70. She is of extremely delicate white limbs and exuberant youth and looks surpassingly lovely andcharming. Shehas alovely neck and charming voice and is struggling with the anguishes of separation with utmost fortitude. She s playing beautifully on a Vina (guitar) held in her hand, well remembering the good qualities of her lover but her face is covered with tears. This Ragini is sung in the Dhaivatswar in the last three parts of the night in rainy season.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a young passionate woman endowed with the qualities of modesty, courtesy and extreme devotion to her husband who has gone to a distant country on business. Her lover (husband) is Anukul or one favourably disposed towards her. The sentiment is intensely erotic but held in check owing to the lover not being close by.

GURJARI RAGINI 3.

71 and 72. This Ragini wears a red sari and yellow corset and is exceedingly beautiful. Her waist is slender, her hair fine and her voice imitates the warble of a cuckoo (koel). She is fond of abundance of drapery and is seated on a couch, well arranged with sweet-smelling flowers, in an angry mood, and engaged in singing. The dominant note of this Ragini is Rikhabh and the season and time of singing it are the rainy season and the morning.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika is a bold sensuous public woman, whose lover comes to her bearing marks of infidelity to her, giving rise to her jealousy. The lover is therefore Satha or one who takes delight in outworldly loving many women without being true to anyone. The sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar where the love is intense but this feeling cannot be indulged in owing to the lover not being close by.

BHUPALI RAGINI 4.

73. Her beautiful person bright as gold is dressed in very fine whote garments and adorned with precious ornaments. She has a beautiful sectarial mark of saffron (on her forehead) and is very eager to put a garland of flowers round the neck of her lover.

This Ragini is sung at night time in the rainy season.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is Pragalbha i.e., one who is intensely young, full of sensuous passions and skilful in all the arts of pleasure, and cunning enough to bring her lover under her control. She has made preparations for the reception of her lover and is herself dressed in white to meet him on a full-moon night. The lover is a faithless fellow who is apparently in love with many women. The sentiment is Vipralambha Sringar.

VIBHAS RAGINI 5.

74 and 75. Her face is like a full moon adorned with a sectarial mark (chatrak), her body white and her breasts stiff adorned with necklaces 0f pearls and is thus very charming and lovely. She cannot bear separation from her lover even for a moment and is clever enough to vanquish him by means of her amorous gestures, sly eye glances and passionate feelings. She is well disposed towards her lover, to whom she is devoted and with whom she eagerly desires to have enjoyment.

RHETORICAL INTERPRETATION

The Nayaika (heroine) is a fully developed young woman full of sensuous feelings, who has managed to bring her lover under her control. The Nayak (hero) is Anukul being well disposed towards her. The sentiment is the mutual enjoyment of a loving couple with all perceptional appendages of love such as seeing, embracing, kissing, etc., etc.

End Notes

1. A species of wagtail

2. A red-coloured flower.

3. A kind of tree said to put forth buds at the roaring of thunder-clouds.

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